Earliest paparyi dating
The most significant and controversial of Thiedes findings was that the Magdalen Papyrus of Matthew was written sometime before the end of the first century.
This conclusion, and the palaeographical basis of Thiedes arguments, will be the focus of our response.
As will be obvious from the plate, the layout and general appearance is quite different from P64: more upright with narrower lettering and, as Thiede noted, a slight right-hand lean and a tendency to ligature. Hanhart, Altes Testament (Grundkurz Theologie 1; Stuttgart et al.: W. Note also the more obvious different features: larger letters appear at beginnings of lines, the leather scrolls, the Jewish provenance evidenced by the tetragrammaton in archaic script, as well as its archaeological discovery in Nahal Hever. Gallo, Greek and Latin Papyrology (Classical Handbook 1; ET; London: Institute of Classical Studies, 1986) 36-45 (approximately 1,000 papyri have not yet been unrolled) Schubart argued that this type of hand passed out of use around AD 100 (112). In relation to the Judean finds, although the dates of AD 70 or 135 provide helpful end-points, the dating of the manuscripts tends to fall much earlier, with considerable debate about whether they might be closer to 50 BC than AD 50. So Parsons, Paleography and Date, 10: the general impression is of a script earlier than that of the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll (i.e. 733 (British Museum Bacchylides papyrus) is the best example or paradigm of this style (cf.
As regards the letters mentioned by Thiede, we ought to note that the manuscript is not consistent in its letter-forms, so a number of different alpha-shapes occur (with very narrow horizontal bar, without any observable cross-bar, and with upward sloping cross-bar). Thiede claims that differences between the scripts (w.r.t. de Vaux, Les Petites Grottes de Qumrn: Exploration de la falaise, Les grottes 2Q, 3Q, 5Q, 6Q, 7Q 10Q, Le rouleau de cuivre (DJD III; Oxford: Clarendon, 1962; 2 parts) Part One, 145; Part Two, Plate XXX. Frag 2, recto, lines 2 & 3; Frag 3, verso, line 4). 53), all of which are dated by Cavallo in the first century BC. Schubart, Griechische Palaeographie (Handbuch der Altertums-wissenschaft I.4; Munich: C. More recently Turner has questioned whether the mere presence of serifs or decorated forms was sufficient to justify classifying a distinct decorated style within the broader category of Formal round (noting the presence of serifs in hands as early as the fourth century BC and as late as AD 200-250), (Greek Manuscripts, 21; he refers further to G. 8Hev XIIgr); he also cites Roberts in favour of a first century BC (or possibly second century BC) date.
It will also be clear that Thiede has not refuted, or even given attention to, either the arguments of these scholars or the manuscripts to which they appealed. They were purchased from a dealer in Luxor by Revd. Huleatt (1863-1908), who identified them as portions of Matthews Gospel, and presented them to Magdalen College, Oxford, where Huleatt had been a demy (foundation scholar). Hunt favoured a fourth century date, and in view of Hunts status as a papyrologist, it was this date that prevailed. This history of research would be of little interest were it not for Thiedes recent claims. 17 (=P64), a hundred years earlier than previously thought.
This rounded formal hand with decorative elements, which was labelled Zierstil after Schubarts description, is known, as our discussion suggests, in manuscripts from Egypt, Herculaneum and the Judean desert, predominantly dated between 100 BC and AD 100. 26) and plate XIX in Tov, The Greek Minor Prophets Scroll . For an Egyptian example from the first century BC, see P. Since the books at Herculaneum belonged to Philodemus himself, and do not include any author later than his death (40 BC), many scholars take that date as the effective terminus ante quem for the vast majority of the Herculaneum papyri (cf. 78, 134; Parsons, The Scripts and Their Date, 24; Gallo, Greek and Latin Papyrology, 37; Cavallo, Libri scritture scribe a Ercolano: , 50-56). While in most cases neither certainty nor precision can be attained it is normally possible to allocate an approximate date and to give a range within which the document can be dated with a reasonably high degree of probability. The History of the Discussion In addition to highlighting the potentially radical implications of Thiedes dating of the fragments, this article referred to the lack of attention given to the manuscript by scholars. Different studies have discussed the significance of its paragraph divisions, The similarities of script, size (c. In this section, we shall see that several scholars have paid attention to the question of the date of the manuscript by appealing to comparable, datable, manuscripts, which led to the consensus date of around AD 200 for the fragments. 16 letters per line, 36 lines per column), structure (dual columned), provenance (P4 was also purchased in Luxor in 1891 following discovery in Coptos in 1880) and subject matter are doubtless significant. The only conclusion which can be drawn from this evidence is that there is no significant relationship between the script and style of P. In fact, however, even those letters specified are not actually very similar: alpha has a horizontal half-serif at the lower end of its upright strokes and a horizontal cross-bar (contrast P64 as previously mentioned), while beta is not even fully attested on P64. In general, the style of pap4QLXXLev is decorative with thin strokes and numerous hooks and (half-) serifs and no descenders below the bottom line (unlike P64). For example, epsilon is very rounded, pi has a pronounced curve in its right upright, sigma is quite rounded, tau has an extended cross-bar, and upsilon has a lower hoop.
The use of nomina sacra suggested the existence of extremely developed Christology in the earliest period. Several of Thiedes improvements are debatable and are addressed in the following notes. Assessing Thiedes Palaeographical Analysis Thiede suggested that the consensus around A. 200 was merely a convenient dumping ground and that Roberts revision of Hunts suggested date from fourth century to late second century needs further revision in light of new manuscript finds. Irenaeus of Lyons Against the Heresies (Ancient Christian Writers No.