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MP3 compression works by reducing (or approximating) the accuracy of certain components of sound that are considered to be beyond the hearing capabilities of most humans.
This method is commonly referred to as perceptual coding, or psychoacoustic modeling.
The MP3 format soon became associated with controversies surrounding copyright infringement, music piracy, the file ripping/sharing services MP3and Napster, among others.
With the advent of portable media players, a product category also including smartphones, MP3 support remains near-universal.
The first practical implementation of an audio perceptual coder (OCF) in hardware (Krasner's hardware was too cumbersome and slow for practical use), was an implementation of a psychoacoustic transform coder based on Motorola 56000 DSP chips.
Another predecessor of the MP3 format and technology is to be found in the perceptual codec MUSICAM based on an integer arithmetics 32 sub-bands filterbank, driven by a psychoacoustic model.
The third group was ATAC, by Fujitsu, JVC, NEC and Sony.
Both eventually met in May 1988 to work on a global standard.
who chaired the ISO MPEG Audio group for several years.
Stoll (IRT Germany), later known as psychoacoustic model I) and a real time decoder using one Motorola 56001 DSP chip running an integer arithmetics software designed by Y. During the development of the MUSICAM encoding software, Stoll and Dehery's team made a thorough use of a set of high quality audio assessment material selected by a group of audio professionals from the European Broadcasting Union and later used as a reference for the assessment of music compression codecs .
The subband coding technique was found to be efficient, not only for the perceptual coding of the high quality sound materials but especially for the encoding of critical percussive sound materials (drums, triangle, ..) due to the specific temporal masking effect of the MUSICAM sub-band filterbank (this advantage being a specific feature of short transform coding techniques).
MP3 (or mp3) as a file format commonly designates files containing an elementary stream of MPEG-1 audio and video encoded data, without other complexities of the MP3 standard.